APA Reference Style - 6th edition 2010



Apa format essay


Examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication Manual; APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog ( http://blog.apastyle.org/ ).


Note that examples below reflect APA's change to DOI format on March 1, 2017.


Please always refresh page (F5) to reflect changes since your last visit.


Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.


Other APA Tools (tips checklist, how-to videos, in-text citations, APA format in presentations, review checklist)


Articles - incl. APA change to DOI format on March 1, 2017 (different from 6th ed.)


How to find assigned DOI


For one article:
1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOI's in 2009.
3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title


For list of references:
1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.


An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
Resolve a DOI name


No DOI assigned? How to find journal home page


Articles assigned DOI


NOTE: Journal titles which begin with BMC or other online-only journals often use document numbers instead of issue numbers, as in this example in volume 15: 15:366. However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers. See third example below.


Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1177/0269881105058776
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776


Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume), more than seven authors
Caselli, D., Carraro, F., Castagnola, E., Ziino, O., Frenos, S., Milano, G. M., . . . Aric, M. (2010). Morbidity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 226-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1002/pbc.22619
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619


Journal Article which provides a volume number and document number instead of an issue number on the article itself (example: 15:366), and each article in the volume usually begins with page number 1.
Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5


Journal Article (paginated by issue)
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10


Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library
Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2


Advance online article (published online before print; may or may not include pagination; indicate initial page number or range if available).
Jung, T. I., Hoffmann, F., Glaeske, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2009). Disease-specific risk for an osteonecrosis of the jaw under bisphosphonate therapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9
*APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9



Articles not assigned a DOI, retrieved online


Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved online, & no journal web page available


Provide holding database home or entry page URL.


Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Billson, C. J. (1892). The Easter hare. Folklore, 3, 441-466. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org
Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43, 485-503. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps


Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved print source


Web Pages (incl. CDC & Mayo Clinic Staff)



  • (Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212)



Individual web page


Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc. Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. 192, and apastyle.org).


IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. If the web page is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report, cite in-text appropriately, and use the online report format instead (click here to jump to those examples).


Web page: Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)
Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (2011). Native American tribes of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from the Native Languages of the Americas website: http://www.native-languages.org /wisconsin.htm
Web page: Group of people as authors: Mayo Clinic Staff (if citing more than 1 section, use "Print" URL)
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org /diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20014854?p=1
Web page: Organization as author, shows update year
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes & pregnancy. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/DiabetesPregnancy/
Web page: Organization as author, no update year (note capitalization of proper names)
Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Stockbridge-Munsee history. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.mpm.edu /wirp /ICW-158.html

Note regarding citing an entire web site source


When discussing an entire web site (as opposed to a specific page on the web site), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).


Illustrations retrieved online


Photographs, drawings, etc. copied or adapted from a Web Page


Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash, but do not split http://.


Following illustration title, insert type of medium in square brackets. Illustration types include diagram, photograph, painting, drawing, bronze sculpture, etc.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov /niosh /topics /skin
If illustration does not have a name/title, insert description including type of medium in square brackets following year. This example does not have a publication date.
Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org /news
/hospital-enhances-rehab-program-with-new-experia-equipment-for-vitalstim-therapy


Books & Reports


Books & Reports, retrieved online source


Electronic version of print book, retrieved from STAT!Ref (Use same URL for all STAT!Ref entries)
Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (5th ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com
Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection (Use same URL for all EBSCO entries)
Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
Electronic version of print book, retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central / Academic Complete (use same URL for all entries)
Chandler, C. K. (2011). Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib
Electronic version of print book, retrieved from SpringerLink (DOI assigned)
Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6
Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item.
Note use of "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"
Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2007). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences. Available from http://mhprofessional.com /product.php?isbn=007722289X
Electronic version of book chapter from an edited book
Symonds, P. https://www.the-essays.com/essay-review . (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 11-22). https://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002
*APA also accepts older formats: doi: http://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002
or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11305-002


Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number
Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov /reports /statbriefs /sb17.jsp
Report/Document available on the web, no author identified, no publication date (provide title first)
Elementary school math instruction questionnaire results. Most significantly improved schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sharingsuccess.org /code /highperf /2002-03 /es_math /msi /index.htm
Report/Document available on the web, authored by a nongovernmental organization, no publication date
Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. (n.d.). Handbook of accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.acpha-cahm.org /forms /acpha /acphahandbook04.pdf
Report/Document from institutional archive or university department web site
Trapp, Y. U. (2005). Multiple intelligences: The learning process in our students. Retrieved from Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute website: http://www.yale.edu /ynhti /curriculum /units /2001 /6 /01.06.10.x.html


Books, retrieved print source


Place title in the author's position; alphabetize on reference list by the first significant word in the title; cite in text using a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of the author's name.


Nursing 2016 drug handbook (36th ed.). (2016). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Book, one author
McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York, NY: Random House.
Book, multiple authors
Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Edited book (editor in place of author)
Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American girls' cultures. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Book, subsequent edition (2nd, 3rd, etc.)
Stanfield, P., Cross, N., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the health professions (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition
Landis, C. A., & Heitkemper, M. M. (2011). Sleep and sleep disorders. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & I. M. Camera, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (8th ed., pp. 112-125). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Article or chapter a book where each chapter is written by author(s), and publisher is book author (not editor), subsequent edition
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72). San Francisco, CA: Author.
Report from a private organization (author & publisher same)
National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (Pub. No. 21-2329). New York, NY: Author.
Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated)
Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Reference / Dictionaries / Encylopedias


Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved online source


Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved print source


This includes both general and specialized encyclopedias. If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.


Moore, C. (1991). Mass Spectrometry. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology (4th ed.) (Vol. 15, pp. 1071-1094). New York, NY: Wiley.
Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)


Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capatilized.


Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ:


Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.


ERIC Documents


ERIC documents, retrieved online source


ERIC documents, retrieved microfiche source


Dissertations & Theses


Disssertations & Theses, retrieved online source


Dissertations & Theses, retrieved print source


Unpublished master's thesis (not indexed in Dissertation Express or Dissertation Abstracts/Master's Abstracts)
Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.
Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.


Master's thesis indexed in Dissertation Express
McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 1434728)
Doctoral dissertation indexed in Dissertation Express
Met, L. (1976). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 7703303)
Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).
Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.
Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
Hansen, C. F. (2007). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada).
Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is included in name of university, then do not repeat the name (APA Manual, 6.30). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
Ni, E. A.-L. (2012). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada).
Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express. .
Watts, E. (1999). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada).


YouTube / Videos / Audio Podcasts



  • YouTube-type Video Blog Post
    Goyen, A. (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=gW3CNCGGgTY
    University of Chicago. (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=Xax5d4IKqrQ
    Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode
    ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video webcast] [Television series episode]. In Good Morning America. Person of the Week. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com /GMA /PersonOfWeek /Story?id=3633945&page=1
    Audio Podcast
    Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. family still struggles to deal with pressure of '67 riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.michiganradio.org
    Film / Movie / Motion Picture
    Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life U.P. days of yore [DVD]. Available from http://wnmutv.nmu.edu /video_sales.php




  • Government Documents


    Government documents, retrieved online source


    Government documents, retrieved print source


    Note: For government documents which do not have a personal author, the Manual 6th ed. indicates providing the parent agency, followed by the sub-agency/-agencies. Also, not all U.S. government documents are published by GPO. As is the case for the second example below, when the publisher is the authoring agency, write: Author in the publisher's field.


    U.S. Government executive document
    Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.
    Lindeman, D. A. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.
    U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. (2004). Pictured rocks national lakeshore: Final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement. Washington, DC: Author.
    Michigan Government executive document
    Michigan Department of Community Health. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burdenof dementia in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Author.


    Law / Legal


    Note about legal citations


    Law / Legal, retrieved online source


    Unenacted bills - Federal - retrieved through Thomas.gov
    Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text.


    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.


    Josh Miller HEARTS Act, S. 1197, 111th Cong. (2009).
    Unenacted bills - State - retrieved through mi.gov
    H.B. 4379, 95th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2010).
    Court Decision with record number identifier (Note source abbreviations - WestLaw: WL & Lexis-Nexis: LEXIS)
    Note: If screen numbers are assigned, precede with an asterisk.
    Hornback v. U.S., No. 03-5099, 2004 WL 68510, at *1 (C. A. Fed. Jan. 13, 2004).


    Law / Legal, retrieved print source


    U.S. Government Congressional document
    For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.


    Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. 1 (1998).
    Court decision (note that no part of entry is italicized)
    United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).


    Course Materials (syllabus, lecture notes, presentation slides)



    • When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from the course instructor, a classmate, or accessible only through course management systems such as NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard, then such content is considered Personal Communications (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 2nd ed., p. 31).

    • Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:



    L. Flood (personal communication, April 7, 2014)


    (N. Gasiewicz, personal communication, March 26, 2014).


    Conferences & Presentations


    Conferences & Presentations, retrieved online source


    Conferences & Presentations, retrieved print source


    Published Proceedings
    Capitalize the name of the symposium.


    Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
    Proceedings published regularly (format similar to periodicals)
    Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.
    Poster presented at conference
    Raspe, P. D. (1991, April). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.


    Personal Communications



    • The APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc.


    • Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:



    D. Walch (personal communication, January 19, 2007).


    (L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).


    Miscellaneous: Abstract as source, Blog & Mailing List postings, Data Set / Bank



    • Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).



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